Table 2

Some antiangiogenic and proangiogenic mediators in systemic sclerosis

Type of mediator

Molecule


Antiangiogenic

Endostatin (normal in some studies)

Platelet factor (PF)4

Thrombospondin

Interleukin (IL)-4

Proangiogenic

Soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1

Soluble E-selectin (sE-selectin; normal in some studies)

E-selectin

Soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin)

P-selectin

Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1/ICAM-1

CD44

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFRs; VEGFR1 and VEGFR2)

IL-8

Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)2 and CCR2 (receptor for MCP-1)

Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α/CCL3

Fractalkine/CX3 chemokine ligand (CX3CL)1 and CX3 chemokine receptor (CX3CR)1 (receptor for fractalkine)

β-Thromboglobulin

Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α

Endothelin (ET)-1


Koch and Distler Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9(Suppl 2):S3   doi:10.1186/ar2187