Potential mechanism of action of some adhesion molecules and cytokines involved in angiogenesis in RA. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α act via αvβ3 integrin. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β appear to act via increasing protein kinase C (PKC) with subsequent action on αvβ5 integrin. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 is proteolytically cleaved into a PEX fragment (a noncatalytic MMP fragment with integrin-binding activity) that acts as a negative regulator of angiogenesis. RA, rheumatoid arthritis. Adapted with permission from Koch. Arthritis Rheum 1998 © John Wiley & Sons/American College of Rheumatology .
Koch and Distler Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9(Suppl 2):S3 doi:10.1186/ar2187