Table 1

Features of major human dendritic cell subsets

Dendritic cell subset


Myeloid (also known as conventional)


Feature

Epithelial Langerhans cells

Interstitial tissue dendritic cells

Plasmacytoid


Progenitors

CD34+, giving rise to common myeloid progenitors, common lymphoid progenitors, monocytes

CD34+, common myeloid progenitors, common lymphoid progenitors

Progenitor homeostatic and expansion factors

FLT3-L, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, stem cell factor, IL-4

FLT3-L, IL-3

Transforming growth factor beta, TNF

Specific markers

Langerin, E-cadherin, CD1a

DC-SIGN, CD1c, BDCA3, S100

CD123, BDCA-2, BDCA-4

Toll-like receptors

All except TLR7, TLR8

TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR8

TLR7, TLR9

Major cytokines produced

IL-12

IFN-α

Produce proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to a variety of signals

Tissue location

Epithelium and epithelial draining lymph nodes

Nonepithelial tissues, lymph node, spleen, thymus

Lymph node, spleen, inflamed tissues

Found in rheumatoid arthritis synovium

Yes (CD1a+ dendritic cells)

Yes

Yes


Lutzky et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9:219   doi:10.1186/ar2200