Reconstruction of micro-CT volumes reveals subchondral plate degeneration and osteophytes. Qualitative assessment of (a,b) subchondral plate integrity and (c,d) femoral osteophyte formation is shown. Reconstruction of the three-dimensional micro-CT volumes and surface rendering was used to assess the integrity of the subchondral plate in (a) NM and (b) FM ipsilateral joints at 20 weeks. Dorsal views of the reconstructed knee joints are shown. In panel a the tibial subchondral plate of NM joints exhibited minor plate breakdown (arrowhead) in the medial plateau, whereas in panel b FM plates were completely compromised by erosion and pitting (arrowheads). Coronal sections of (c) NM and (d) FM ipsilateral joints at 20 weeks reveal the presence of osteophytes (arrows). FM joints exhibit many well developed osteophytes on both medial (left) and lateral (right) joint margins, whereas NM joints show only slight medial osteophyte development (containing little mineral content). The magnification of each image is the same, indicated by the scale bars. CT, computed tomography; FM, forced mobilization; NM, nonmobilized.
Appleton et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9:R13 doi:10.1186/ar2120