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Open Access Research article

Validation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) Core Set for rheumatoid arthritis from the patient perspective using focus groups

Michaela Coenen12, Alarcos Cieza1, Tanja A Stamm13, Edda Amann1, Barbara Kollerits1 and Gerold Stucki124*

Author Affiliations

1 ICF Research Branch of the WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifications at the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI), IHRS, Marchioninistraße 17, 81377 Munich, Germany

2 Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University Hospital Munich, Marchioninistraße 15, 81377 Munich, Germany

3 Vienna Medical University, Department of Internal Medicine III, Division of Rheumatology, Waehringer Guertel 18–20, 1090 Vienna, Austria

4 Swiss Paraplegic Research (SPF), Nottwil, Switzerland

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2006, 8:R84  doi:10.1186/ar1956

Published: 9 May 2006

Abstract

Functioning is recognized as an important study outcome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) of the World Health Organisation with the purpose of representing the typical spectrum of functioning of patients with RA. To strengthen the patient perspective, persons with RA were explicitly involved in the validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA using qualitative methodology. The objective of the study was twofold: to come forward with a proposal for the most appropriate methodology to validate Comprehensive ICF Core Sets from the patient perspective; and to add evidence to the validation of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA from the perspective of patients. The specific aims were to explore the aspects of functioning and health important to patients with RA using two different focus group approaches (open approach and ICF-based approach) and to examine to what extent these aspects are represented by the current version of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA. The sampling of patients followed the maximum variation strategy. Sample size was determined by saturation. The focus groups were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The meaning condensation procedure was used for the data analysis. After qualitative data analysis, the resulting concepts were linked to ICF categories according to established linking rules. Forty-nine patients participated in ten focus groups (five in each approach). Of the 76 ICF categories contained in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA, 65 were reported by the patients based on the open approach and 71 based on the ICF-based approach. Sixty-six additional categories (open approach, 41; ICF-based approach, 57) that are not covered in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA were raised. The existing version of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA could be confirmed almost entirely by the two different focus group approaches applied. Focus groups are a highly useful qualitative method to validate the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for RA from the patient perspective. The ICF-based approach seems to be the most appropriate technique.