The S100A8/A9 heterodimer amplifies proinflammatory cytokine production by macrophages via activation of nuclear factor kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in rheumatoid arthritis
1 Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama 700-8558, Japan
2 Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Vascular Biology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan
3 Department of Biochemistry and Physics, Center for Structural Biology, Vanderbilt University, 465 21st Avenue, Nashville, TN 87232-8725, USA
4 Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo University, 1091-1 Sagamiko, Tsukui-gun, Kanagawa 199-0195, Japan
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2006, 8:R69 doi:10.1186/ar1939Published: 13 April 2006
S100A8 and S100A9, two Ca2+-binding proteins of the S100 family, are secreted as a heterodimeric complex (S100A8/A9) from neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages. Serum and synovial fluid levels of S100A8, S100A9, and S100A8/A9 were all higher in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) than in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), with the S100A8/A9 heterodimer being prevalent. By two-color immunofluorescence labeling, S100A8/A9 antigens were found to be expressed mainly by infiltrating CD68+ macrophages in RA synovial tissue (ST). Isolated ST cells from patients with RA spontaneously released larger amounts of S100A8/A9 protein than did the cells from patients with OA. S100A8/A9 complexes, as well as S100A9 homodimers, stimulated the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha, by purified monocytes and in vitro-differentiated macrophages. S100A8/A9-mediated cytokine production was suppressed significantly by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors and almost completely by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) inhibitors. NF-κB activation was induced in S100A8/A9-stimulated monocytes, but this activity was not inhibited by p38 MAPK inhibitors. These results indicate that the S100A8/A9 heterodimer, secreted extracellularly from activated tissue macrophages, may amplify proinflammatory cytokine responses through activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK pathways in RA.