Synovial fluid cytokines in early and established arthritis. Shown are synovial fluid concentrations (pg/ml) of IL-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1β, granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), IL-12, MIP-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, IL-17, IL-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, RANTES (regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted), IL-8, IL-6 and IL-5. Patient groups: 1, early synovitis that develops into rheumatoid arthritis (RA); 2, early synovitis that develops into non-rheumatoid persistent synovitis; 3, early non-crystal-related resolving synovitis; 4, crystal-related resolving synovitis; 5, established RA; and 6, osteoarthritis.
Raza et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2005 7:R784-R795 doi:10.1186/ar1733