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Open Access Research article

Synovial microparticles from arthritic patients modulate chemokine and cytokine release by synoviocytes

René J Berckmans1*, Rienk Nieuwland1, Maarten C Kraan2, Marianne CL Schaap1, Desirée Pots2, Tom JM Smeets2, Augueste Sturk1 and Paul P Tak2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Clinical Chemistry, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

2 Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2005, 7:R536-R544  doi:10.1186/ar1706

Published: 1 March 2005

Abstract

Synovial fluid from patients with various arthritides contains procoagulant, cell-derived microparticles. Here we studied whether synovial microparticles modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS). Microparticles, isolated from the synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and arthritis control (AC) patients (n = 8 and n = 3, respectively), were identified and quantified by flow cytometry. Simultaneously, arthroscopically guided synovial biopsies were taken from the same knee joint as the synovial fluid. FLS were isolated, cultured, and incubated for 24 hours in the absence or presence of autologous microparticles. Subsequently, cell-free culture supernatants were collected and concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, IL-8, granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were determined. Results were consistent with previous observations: synovial fluid from all RA as well as AC patients contained microparticles of monocytic and granulocytic origin. Incubation with autologous microparticles increased the levels of MCP-1, IL-8 and RANTES in 6 of 11 cultures of FLS, and IL-6, ICAM-1 and VEGF in 10 cultures. Total numbers of microparticles were correlated with the IL-8 (r = 0.91, P < 0.0001) and MCP-1 concentrations (r = 0.81, P < 0.0001), as did the numbers of granulocyte-derived microparticles (r = 0.89, P < 0.0001 and r = 0.93, P < 0.0001, respectively). In contrast, GM-CSF levels were decreased. These results demonstrate that microparticles might modulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by FLS and might therefore have a function in synovial inflammation and angiogenesis.