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Highly Accessed Review

Negative regulation of cytokine signaling and immune responses by SOCS proteins

Akihiko Yoshimura*, Hitomi Nishinakamura, Yumiko Matsumura and Toshikatsu Hanada

Author affiliations

Division of Molecular and Cellular Immunology, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan

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Citation and License

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2005, 7:100-110  doi:10.1186/ar1741

Published: 30 March 2005

Abstract

Immune and inflammatory systems are controlled by multiple cytokines, including interleukins and interferons. Many of these cytokines exert their biological functions through JAKs (Janus tyrosine kinases) and STAT (signal transduction and activators of transcription) transcription factors. CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 (Src homology 2) protein) and SOCS (suppressor of cytokine signaling) are a family of intracellular proteins, several of which have emerged as key physiological regulators of cytokine-mediated homeostasis, including innate and adaptive immunity. In this review we focus on the molecular mechanism of the action of CIS/SOCS family proteins and their roles in immune regulation and inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis.