Figure 2.

Presentation of a randomized trial protocol for consideration by a patient. This presents an idealized sequence of invitation, factual evaluation, ethical valuation, decision, and randomization. Note that factual evaluation contrasts benefits and risks of usual care versus the expected benefits and risks of the trial after pooling all arms, and that the decision point always comes before randomization and hence is independent of the relative expectations for the different arms of the trial.

Fries and Krishnan Arthritis Res Ther 2004 6:R250-R255   doi:10.1186/ar1170
Download authors' original image