Bone and cartilage turnover in 5-month-old ovariectomized (OVX) rats treated with vehicle alone (OVX vehicle), estrogen (OVX estrogen), or the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) (-)-cis-3,4-diarylhydroxychromane, given in either a low dose (0.2 mg/kg per day; OVX SERM low) or a high dose (5 mg/kg per day; OVX SERM high). Values for vehicle-treated sham-operated rats (Sham) are also included. Bone resorption was determined by measurement of collagen type I fragments (CTX-I) (a), and cartilage turnover was assessed using collagen type II fragments (CTX-II) as a marker (b). Measurements were made at the weekly intervals shown, starting when the rats were 5 months old. The significance of differences between groups was assessed by nonparametric analysis of variance (ANOVA). *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001.
Høegh-Andersen et al. Arthritis Res Ther 2004 6:R169-R180 doi:10.1186/ar1152