Mactinin: a modulator of the monocyte response to inflammation
1 Department of Medicine, Veterans Affairs Medical Center and University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
2 Ramsey Burn Center, Regions Hospital, St Paul, Minnesota, USA
3 Department of Biochemistry, Rush University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
Arthritis Res Ther 2003, 5:R310-R316 doi:10.1186/ar799Published: 5 August 2003
During inflammatory processes, monocytes leave the blood stream at increased rates and enter inflammation tissue, where they undergo phenotypic transformation to mature macrophages with enhanced phagocytic activity. α-Actinin, a cytoskeletal protein, is present in focal adhesion complexes and left in the microenvironment as a result of cell movement. Mactinin, a 31 kDa amino-terminal fragment of α-actinin, is generated by the degradation of extracellular α-actinin by monocyte-secreted urokinase. We have previously demonstrated that mactinin promotes monocyte/macrophage maturation. We now report that 0.5–10 nM mactinin has significant chemotactic activity for monocytes. Mactinin seems to be present in inflammatory arthritis synovial fluid, because affinity-purified antisera reacted with a protein of the expected molecular mass in various types of arthritis fluids that were immunoaffinity-purified and subjected to Western analysis. Thus, six of seven samples from patients with psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, gout, or ankylosing spondylitis contained mactinin at levels that are active in vitro. Initially, mactinin was not found in affinity-purified rheumatoid arthritis samples. However, it was detectable after the dissociation of immune complexes, suggesting that it was complexed to anti-microfilament auto-antibodies. In addition, mactinin was found in the lavage fluid from the arthritic knee joints of rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis and was absent from the contralateral control knee fluids. We conclude that mactinin is present in several types of inflammatory arthritis and might modulate mononuclear phagocyte response to inflammation.