Table 1

Sources of multipotential adult mesenchymal stem cells

Source tissue

Multilineage differentiation potential

Representative references


Bone marrow

Adipocyte

[26,143]

Astrocyte, neuron

[12,137]

Cardiomyocyte

[14,15,131-133]

Chondrocyte

[26,46,76,79]

Hepatocyte

[6,7,144]

Mesangial cell

[13]

Muscle

[10,35]

Neuron

[11,12]

Osteoblast

[26,33,43,145-147]

Stromal cell

[148]

Various embryonic tissue lineages

[139]

Muscle

Adipocyte, myotubes, osteocyte

[138]

Endothelial cell, neuron

[20,149]

Chondrocyte

[112]

Osteocyte

[20]

Trabecular bone

Adipocyte, chondrocyte, osteoblast

[27-29]

Dermis

Adipocyte, chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast

[21]

Adipose tissue

Chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast

[16]

Stromal cell

[150]

Periosteum

Chondrocyte, osteoblast

[17,18]

Pericyte

Chondrocyte

[22]

Osteoblast

[23,24]

Blood

Adipocyte, fibroblast, osteoblast, osteoclast

[25]

Synovial membrane

Adipocyte, chondrocyte, muscle, osteoblast

[18]


Tuan et al. Arthritis Res Ther 2003 5:32-45   doi:10.1186/ar614