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Review

Fibroblast biology: Effector signals released by the synovial fibroblast in arthritis

Christopher Ritchlin

Author Affiliations

University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA

Arthritis Res 2000, 2:356-360  doi:10.1186/ar112

Published: 23 June 2000

Abstract

There is mounting evidence indicating that the synovial fibroblast is a direct effector of tissue injury and matrix remodeling in inflammatory synovitis. Through the elaboration of effector signals including cytokines and chemokines, mesenchymal cells stimulate or suppress inflammation via autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. Synovial fibroblasts are the principal cells mediating joint destruction through secretion of metalloproteinases, and recent evidence suggests that they may also promote bone resorption by stimulating osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, they may play an integral role in the initial phases of synovitis by releasing chemokines that recruit leukocytes to the joint, and cytokines that trigger angiogenesis. Studies focusing on synoviocyte-leukocyte interactions mediated via the cytokine network and the role of cell-cell contact in driving synoviocyte activation will help define the complex interplay that leads to the initiation and perpetuation of synovial inflammation.

Keywords:
chemokines; cytokines; effector cell; rheumatoid arthritis; synovial fibroblast; synovial membrane