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Open Access Research article

Faecal levels of calprotectin in systemic sclerosis are stable over time and are higher compared to primary Sjögren’s syndrome and rheumatoid arthritis

Kristofer Andréasson1*, Tore Saxne1, Agneta Scheja1, Izabela Bartosik1, Thomas Mandl2 and Roger Hesselstrand1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

2 Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2014, 16:R46  doi:10.1186/ar4475

Published: 6 February 2014

Abstract

Introduction

Faecal calprotectin (FC) has been proposed to be a biomarker of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in systemic sclerosis (SSc). The purpose of this study was to extend cross-sectional observations and prospectively assess the variability of FC over time in SSc patients. We also aimed to examine FC in relation to immunosuppressive therapy. Finally we wanted to analyse FC in other rheumatic diseases to evaluate the specificity of FC for SSc GI disease.

Methods

FC was measured in consecutive patients with SSc, primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and in healthy hospital workers. The intraindividual variability of FC in SSc was assessed with intra class correlation (ICC) and κ statistics. Associations between FC and objective markers of GI disease and immunosuppressive medication were investigated.

Results

FC was associated with micronutrient deficiency and GI pathology as assessed by cineradiography confirming our previous results. FC showed only a limited intra-individual variation in SSc, ICC = 0.69 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.57-0.78) and κ = 0.64 (95% CI: 0.56-0.73). Generalised immunosuppression did not have any significant impact on FC. FC was significantly higher in SSc patients compared to patients with pSS or RA as well as compared to healthy subjects.

Conclusions

FC is a promising non-invasive biomarker for GI disease in SSc. In view of stable levels over time, FC could be a useful marker when novel, more specific drugs targeting the GI tract in SSc will be introduced.