Table 2

Increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with NSAIDs in two meta-analyses of observational studies

Relative risk or odds ratio


Drug

Hernández-Díaz and Rodríguez [33](1990s, ≥80,000 patients)

Massó González and colleagues [34](2000 to 2008, ≥40,000 patients)


Ibuprofen ≤,2400 mg

2.1 (1.6 to 2.7)

2.7 (2.4 to 3.0)

Diclofenac ≤100 mg

3.1 (2.0 to 4.7)

4.0 (3.5 to 4.4)

Naproxen ≤1,000 mg

3.5 (2.8 to 4.3)

5.2 (4.3 to 6.2)

Piroxicam ≤20 mg

5.6 (4.7 to 6.7)

9.3 (7.5 to 11)

Current NSAID use

4.2 (3.9 to 4.6)

4.6 (4.3 to 4.9)


Consistently large magnitude of the increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in two meta-analyses of observational studies [33,34]. Results show the risk of use of NSAID compared with nonuse, adjusted for confounders.

Andrew Moore Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15(Suppl 3):S4   doi:10.1186/ar4176