Table 1

Risk factors for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related gastrointestinal complications

Risk factor


Age ≥65 years (especially >70 years)

History of peptic ulcer

Use of two or more NSAIDs at the same time

Concomitant therapy with antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants, corticosteroids

and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Severe illness

Helicobacter pylori infection

Use of more gastrolesive NSAIDs [14]

   RR of GI complications <2: aceclofenac, ibuprofen and celecoxib

   RR of GI complications 2 to 4: rofecoxib, meloxicam, nimesulide, sulindac,

   diclofenac and ketoprofen

   RR of GI complications 4 to 5: tenoxicam, naproxen, difflunisal and

   indomethacin

   RR of GI complications >5: piroxicam, azapropazone and ketorolaco


GI, gastrointestinal; NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; RR, relative risk.

Sostres et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15(Suppl 3):S3   doi:10.1186/ar4175