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Open Access Research article

The FAt Spondyloarthritis Spine Score (FASSS): development and validation of a new scoring method for the evaluation of fat lesions in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis

Susanne Juhl Pedersen12*, Zheng Zhao23, Robert GW Lambert4, Stephanie Wichuk2, Mikkel Østergaard1, Ulrich Weber2 and Walter P Maksymowych2

Author Affiliations

1 Copenhagen Center for Arthritis Research, Center for Rheumatology and Spine Diseases, Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Ndr. Ringvej 57, Glostrup 2600, Denmark

2 Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, 562 Heritage Medical Research Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2S2, Canada

3 Department of Rheumatology, PLA General Hospital, 28# Fuxing Road, Beijing, Haidian District 2600, China

4 Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, 2A2.41 Walter C. Mackenzie Health Sciences Centre, 8440-122 Street Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2B7, Canada

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:R216  doi:10.1186/ar4411

Published: 16 December 2013

Abstract

Introduction

Studies have shown that fat lesions follow resolution of inflammation in the spine of patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). Fat lesions at vertebral corners have also been shown to predict development of new syndesmophytes. Therefore, scoring of fat lesions in the spine may constitute both an important measure of treatment efficacy as well as a surrogate marker for new bone formation. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new scoring method for fat lesions in the spine, the Fat SpA Spine Score (FASSS), which in contrast to the existing scoring method addresses the localization and phenotypic diversity of fat lesions in patients with axial SpA.

Methods

Fat lesions at pre-specified anatomical locations at each vertebral endplate (C2 lower-S1 upper) were assessed dichotomously (present/absent) on spine MRIs. Two readers independently evaluated MRIs obtained at two time points for 58 patients (Exercise 1), followed by optimization of scoring methodology and reader calibration. Thereafter, the same readers read 135 pairs of MRI scans (Exercise 2; including the 58 pairs from exercise 1 randomly mixed with 77 new pairs).

Results

In Exercise 2, the mean (SD) baseline FASSS score for the two readers was 22.5(29.6) and 21.1(28.0), respectively, and the FASSS change score was 4.2(10.6) and 6.0(12.2). Inter-reader reliability assessed as intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for status and change scores were excellent (0.96 (95% CI (0.94 to 0.97)) and very good (0.86 (0.80 to 0.90)), respectively. The smallest detectable change (SDC) was 3.7 for the 135 patients. Good reliability of change scores was also observed for MRI scans conducted one year apart (ICC 0.74 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.89) and SDC 4.5). For the 58 MRI-pairs assessed in both exercises, inter-reader reproducibility for the total FASSS status score improved from very good (ICCs: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81 to 0.93) in exercise 1 to excellent in exercise 2 (0.96 (0.93 to 0.98)), and improved substantially for the total change score (from 0.67 (0.51 to 0.80) to 0.83 (0.73 to 0.90).

Conclusions

FASSS meets essential validation criteria for quantification of a common structural abnormality in clinical trials of axial spondyloarthritis.