Adipokines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis
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Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, 120-752, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:R194 doi:10.1186/ar4384Published: 19 November 2013
Cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality are increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Inflammation is thought to be an important factor in accelerated atherosclerosis in RA, whereas insulin resistance is a known risk factor for atherosclerosis in RA. We hypothesised that adipokines could be a link between inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis in RA.
The common carotid artery (CCA) intima-media thickness (IMT), CCA resistive index (RI), and carotid plaques were measured by ultrasonography in 192 patients with RA. Insulin resistance was assessed by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined.
The CCA RI was associated with CCA IMT and the estimated total plaque volume after adjustment for conventional CV risk factors. Among adipokines, resistin and IL-6 were correlated with inflammatory parameters. Leptin and leptin:adiponectin (L:A) ratio were correlated with metabolic risk factors, including HOMA-IR. And L:A ratio was related to the CCA RI after adjustment for conventional and nonconventional CV risk factors, including HOMA-IR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein.
L:A ratio was associated with HOMA-IR and carotid RI. L:A ratio might be an independent factor for predicting cardiovascular risk in patients with RA.