Full thickness chondral defects. (A) Chondral defects with 5 mm diameter chondrotome. (B) Removal of calcified cartilage layer with curette, leaving an intact subchondral bone plate. (C,D) Five drill holes per chondral defect can be clearly observed after being washed with saline.
Nam et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R129 doi:10.1186/ar4309