Table 1

Baseline characteristics, cardiovascular drug use, metabolic risk factors, surrogate markers of enhanced early atherogenesis and adiponectin variables in African black and white patients with rheumatoid arthritis
Characteristics Black (n = 119) White (n = 91) P
Baseline characteristic
 Age, years 55.8 (10.2) 58.6 (10.9) 0.06
 Female (%) 89.1 76.7 0.02
 Smoking 3.4 11.1 0.04
 Body mass index, kg/m2 29.3 (6.6) 25.7 (4.7) <0.0001
 Waist circumference, cm 93.3 (13.4) 90.2 (12.7) 0.08
 Waist-hip ratio 0.85 (0.80 to 0.90) 0.87 (0.82 to 0.93) 0.03
 RA duration, years 12.8 (9.2) 14.1 (9.3) 0.3
 Rheumatoid factor positive (%) 77.3 76.4 0.8
 DAS28 4.2 (1.3) 3.6 (1.6) 0.007
 C-reactive protein, mg/ml 7.0 (4.0 to 14.5) 4.1 (1.9 to 11.8) 0.007
 Glomerular filtration rate, ml/min/1.73 m2 Conventional disease modifying agents use 105 (1) 89 (1) 0.0001
  Any (%) 100 100 1.0
  Number 2.5 (1.0) 2.2 (0.09) 0.02
  Methotrexate (%) 90.8 79.1 0.02
  Chloroquine (%) 79.8 55.0 0.0002
  Leflunomide (%) 20.2 38.5 0.004
  Sulphasalazine (%) 24.1 12.1 0.03
  Azathioprine (%) 16.8 11.0 0.2
  Tetracycline (%) 10.1 13.2 0.5
  Cyclophosphamide (%) 5.9 1.1 0.1
  Penicillamine (%) 4.2 2.2 0.4
 Tumor necrosis-α inhibitor (%) 0.0 8.8
 Rituximab (%) 0.0 1.5
 Prednisone (%) 1.7 3.3 0.5
Cardiovascular drug use
 Antihypertensive agents (%) 54.6 44.4 0.2
 Oral glucose lowering agents (%) 13.5 4.4 0.04
 Insulin (%) 0.8 2.2 0.4
 Statin (%) 19.4 38.9 0.002
 Ezetimibe (%) 0.0 2.2
Metabolic risk factors
 Hypertension (%) 72.3 49.5 0.0008
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHG 140 (25) 130 (17) 0.0004
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHG 86 (15) 80 (9) 0.0005
 Mean blood pressure, mmHg 104 (17) 113 (13) 0.0002
 Cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ration >4 (%) 21.7 14.8 0.2
 Total cholesterol, mmol/l 4.7 (0.9) 5.1 (1.1) 0.004
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 1.5 (1.3 to 1.8) 1.6 (1.3 to 2.0) 0.07
 Cholesterol-HDL cholesterol ratio 3.2 (1.1) 3.2 (1.0) 0.80
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/l 2.6 (0.8) 2.8 (0.9) 0.03
 Non HDL cholesterol, mmol/l 3.1 (0.9) 3.4 (1.0) 0.05
 Triglycerides, mmol/l 1.0 (0.7 to 1.3) 1.0 (0.9 to 1.4) 0.4
 Triglycerides-HDL cholesterol ratio 0.67 (0.46 to 1.10) 0.64 (0.46 to 0.93) 0.6
 Diabetes (%) 16.0 7.8 0.08
 Glucose, mmol/l 4.9 (4.5 to 5.4) 4.7 (4.4 to 5.1) 0.1
 Metabolic risk factors, number* 1.4 (0.9) 1.0 (0.8) 0.005
Endothelial activation
 E-selectin, ng/ml 42.23 (19.78) 36.05 (17.20) 0.02
 VCAM-1, ng/ml 841.84 (696.33 to 1071.75) 791.01 (641.33 to 1033.44) 0.3
 ICAM-1, ng/ml 238.10 (170.92 to 314.52) 309.19 (256.51 to 384.74) <0.0001
 MCP-1, pg/ml 349.31 (224.75 to 665.07) 460.12 (329.71 to 681.86) 0.01
 Endothelial activation score -0.25 (2.35) 0.32 (2.35) 0.09
Adiponectin variables
 Total adiponectin, ng/ml 7.41 (4.62 to 11.56) 7.25 (5.31 to 12.83) 0.4
 HMW adiponectin, ng/ml 2.65 (1.54 to 5.53) 3.82 (2.10 to 6.00) 0.05
 HMW-total adiponectin ratio 0.44 (0.20) 0.50 (0.27) 0.07

Results are expressed as mean (SD) or median (interquartile range) unless indicated otherwise. Significant disparities are shown in bold. *Includes MetS defined reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol and elevated triglycerides, blood pressure and glucose criteria. DAS28, Disease activity score in 28 joints; HDL, High-density lipoprotein; HMW, High molecular weight; ICAM, Intercellular adhesion molecule; LDL, Low-density lipoprotein; MCP, Monocyte chemoattractant protein; RA, Rheumatoid arthritis; VCAM, Vascular cell adhesion molecule.

Dessein et al.

Dessein et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R128   doi:10.1186/ar4308

Open Data