Additional file 3: Figure S2.

Showing that (a), (b) to specify the AKT isoform most involved in the induction of type I and type III procollagen expression during dedifferentiation, siRNAs for respective AKT isoforms were introduced into primary cultured chondrocytes, and 3 days later expression of type I (COL1A1) (a) and type III procollagen (COL3A1) (b) was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Results are shown by relative ratios against the cells given control siRNA (Control; (open bars). Two or three bars for each AKT gene indicate results of respective siRNAs used for the gene. Results are mean ± standard error of the mean of four independent experiments, each in duplicate. *P <0.05 and **P <0.01 against the cells given control siRNA. (c) RNA was extracted from 10 human osteoarthritic knee cartilages of 10 donors, and gene expression profiles were determined respectively by complementary DNA microarray analysis. Signal intensities for respective AKT isoforms are shown as mean ± standard error of the mean. For AKT3, tv1 and tv2 denotes transcript variant 1 (NM_005465) and 2 (NM_181690), respectively. GADPH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

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Tanaka et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R127   doi:10.1186/ar4307