DexVD3 DC primed lymphocytes from patients with pSS suppress antigen-specific T cell proliferation. (A) First, DC from a group of patients with pSS (n = 4) were pulsed with 1 μg/ml PPD and co-cultured with CellTrace Violet-labeled autologous NAC (1:5 ratio) and the percentage of proliferated cells was analyzed. (B) Next, this experiment was repeated with another group of patients (n = 4) using a mixture of Ro52, Ro60 and La (1 μg/ml each). (C) Naïve NAC (responder cells labeled with CFSE) were co-cultured with different DC-primed NAC (effector cells labeled with CellTrace Violet) in the presence of Ag-loaded mature DMSO DC (ratio 2:1:0.2) for 5 days. CellTrace Violet-positive cells were gated out and the level of proliferation of CFSE-labeled responder cells was evaluated as the reduction of MFI. The DC population that was used to stimulate the effector cells is shown on the x-axis. DMSO-, immature DC;, DMSO+, LPS-stimulated DC; DexVD3+, LPS-stimulated DC generated in the presence of dexamethasone and 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3; NAC, nonadherent cells; PPD, purified protein derivative; pSS, primary Sjögren's syndrome. Each dot represents one individual experiment, bars indicate median, n = 4 (same patients as in Figure 3B), *P ≤ 0.05.
Volchenkov et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R114 doi:10.1186/ar4294