Table 2

Effect of pioglitazone on rheumatoid arthritis disease activity, inflammation and insulin resistancea
Measurement Pioglitazone phase Placebo phase Pioglitazone treatment effect
Baseline Week 8/week 20 Baseline Week 8/week 20 Effect P-value
(SD) (SD) (SD) (SD) (95% CI)
DAS28-CRP 4.40 4.03 4.57 4.48 −9.3% 0.046
(1.00) (1.15) (1.28) (1.20) (−17.6 to −0.17%)
DAS28-ESR 4.56 4.37 4.85 4.57 0.6% 0.92
(1.39) (1.28) (1.56) (1.63) (−10.3 to 12.7%)
Swollen joints (n) 6.6 6.46 8.2 7 0.3 0.77
(3.7) (4.79) (5.6) (5.11) (−1.4 to 1.9)
Tender joints (n) 9.6 8.54 11.5 10.35 −0.7 0.54
(6.89) (7.28) (8.1) (8.23) (−2.9 to 1.5)
VAS (mm) 44.9 42.04 48.0 49.46 −10.7 0.042
(24.7) (28.39) (31.2) (23.62) (−20.9 to −0.4)
CRP (mg/dl) 8.1 5.02 7.7 8.25 −48.6% <0.001
(11.41) (7.64) (13.6) (10.32) (−63.5 to −27.6%)
ESR (mm/h) 18.5 17 19.5 18.88 21.3% 0.32
(18.2) (17.06) (20) (20.80) (−16.9 to 77%)
IL-6 (pg/ml) 5.41 2.38 8.67 6.47 −67.0% 0.01
(7.88) (4.05) (19.31) (14.40) (−84.6 to −28.2%)
TNF-α (pg/ml) 9.90 9.50 13.40 9.71 6.0% 0.71
(10.64) (10.56) (19.41) (7.91) (−22.7 to 46.2%)
MHAQ (units) 0.55 0.54 0.56 0.59 −4.3% 0.51
(0.37) (0.39) (0.35) (0.36) (−16.2 to 9.3%)
HOMA (units) 2.83 2.44 2.38 3.11 −26.4% 0.025
(2.50) (2.08) (1.75) (3.47) (−43.8 to −3.7%)

aData for each intervention phase (pioglitazone and placebo) at baseline and at week 8/week 20 are presented as mean (±SD). Pioglitazone treatment effect was calculated using linear mixed-effects models and is presented as change or percentage change (95% confidence interval). CRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; DAS28-CRP, Disease Activity Score in 28 joints high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HOMA, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance; IL-6, interleukin 6; MHAQ, modified Health Assessment Questionnaire; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor α; VAS, Visual Analogue Scale for Global Health.

Ormseth et al.

Ormseth et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R110   doi:10.1186/ar4290

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