Table 3

Baseline demographic and clinical factors associated with medication use at baseline; results of multivariable modelling

Outcome


Analgesic(s)

Nutraceutical(s)


Baseline factor

Prescription;

any use reported

Prescription or OTC;

frequent use reported

Prescription or OTC;

number of different types used

Frequent use reported


Female

1.5 (1.1 - 2.0), P = 0.010

1.8 (1.3 - 2.3), P >0.001

IR 1.4 (1.2 - 1.8), P = 0.001

1.2 (0.9- 1.6), P = 0.197

Non-white

1.0 (0.7 - 1.4), p = 0.891

1.0 (0.7 - 1.3), p = 0.908

IR 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2), P = 0.733

0.4 (0.3 - 0.6), P <0.001

Age

reference

reference

reference

reference

65 to 74 versus <65

0.9 (0.7- 1.3), P = 0.722

1.0 (0.8 - 1.4), P = 0.919

IR 1.0 (0.8 - 1.2), P = 0.669

1.0 (0.8 - 1.4), P = 0.922

>74 versus <65

1.4 (0.8 - 2.3), P = 0.224

1.4 (0.8 - 2.3), P = 0.197

IR 1.0 (0.7 - 1.5), P = 0.830

0.6 (0.3 - 0.9), P = 0.026

KL grade

reference

reference

reference

reference

3 versus 2

1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.180

1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.133

IR 1.1 (0.9 - 1.4), P = 0.375

1.3 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.108

4 versus 2

1.4 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.107

1.4 (1.0 - 2.1), P = 0.071

IR 1.3 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.147

2.2 (1.5 - 3.3), P <0.001

Pain NRS

reference

reference

reference

reference

4 to 7 versus 0 to 3

1.3 (0.9 - 1.9), P = 0.152

1.7 (1.2 - 2.4), P = 0.001

IR 1.3 (1.0 - 1.7), P = 0.070

0.9 (0.6 - 1.2), P = 0.496

8 to 10 versus 0 to 3

1.9 (1.2 - 2.9), P = 0.004

3.1 (2.1 - 4.7), P <0.001

IR 1.7 (1.3 - 2.4), P = 0.001

0.8 (0.5 - 1.2), P = 0.204

Co-morbidity

1.1 (0.8 - 1.5), P = 0.544

1.1 (0.8 - 1.5), P = 0.491

IR 1.1 (0.9 - 1.4), P = 0.337

0.6 (0.5 - 0.9), P = 0.005

BMI

reference

reference

reference

reference

26 to 30 versus <26

1.0 (0.6 - 1.6), P = 0.944

1.0 (0.7 - 1.5), P = 0.973

IR 1.0 (0.7 - 1.4), P = 0.868

0.9 (0.6 - 1.4), P = 0.686

>30 versus <26

1.3 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.205

1.4 (0.9 - 2.1), P = 0.152

IR 1.2 (0.9 - 1.7), P = 0.191

0.7 (0.5 - 1.1), P = 0.114


Number of subjects included

987

987

987

987

Overall model significance:

Likelihood ratio test

χ2=30.3, df = 11, p = 0.001

χ2=72.7, df = 11, p<0.001

χ2=38.8, df = 11, p<0.001

χ2=81.2, df = 11, p<0.001

Goodness-of-fit test:

Hosmer & Lemeshow

χ2=2.3, df = 8, p = 0.970

χ2=11.27, df = 8, p = 0.187

χ2=564.6*, df = 975, p = 0.579

χ2=2.6, df = 8, p = 0.955


*Pearson Chi-square goodness-of-fit; Values presented are odds ratio (95% CI) unless otherwise stated; bold type indicates statistical significance. BMI, body mass index kg/m2; IR, incident rate; KL, Kellgren-Lawrence; NRS, numerical rating scale; OTC, over the counter.

Kingsbury et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R106   doi:10.1186/ar4286

Open Data