Table 2

Association between sociodemographic, general health and disease-specific variables to functional disabilitya

Variable

HAQ-DI


Crude OR (95% CI)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)b

Adjusted OR (95% CI)c


Sociodemographic

Gender (female vs. male)

6.27 (3.37, 11.64)

Age (5 years)

1.28 (1.15, 1.44)

Education

No or primary

Reference

Secondary

0.48 (0.27, 0.84)

0.66 (0.36, 1.20)

Upper secondary

0.21 (0.10, 0.42)

0.27 (0.13, 0.56)

Tertiary

0.17 (0.05, 0.57)

0.19 (0.05, 0.73)

Employment

Employed

Reference

Unemployed

5.85 (2.21, 15.48)

2.49 (0.85, 7.31)

Retired

3.57 (1.81, 7.03)

2.21 (0.92, 5.28)

Unknown

-

-

General health variables

Comorbidity index

1.22 (1.15, 1.29)

1.16 (1.09, 1.24)

Body mass index

Normal

Reference

Overweight

1.82 (0.90, 3.68)

2.44 (1.14, 5.22)

Obese

2.71 (1.28, 5.73)

4.02 (1.78, 9.07)

Current smokers

0.99 (0.53, 1.85)

1.37 (0.71, 2.64)

High alcohol consumers

0.96 (0.59, 1.54)

1.46 (0.87, 2.45)

Gout-related variables

Disease duration (>5 years)

1.98 (1.24, 3.14)

2.12 (1.30, 3.46)

2.03 (1.22, 3.40)

Joint involvement

Monoarticular

Reference

Oligoarticular (2 to 4 joints)

1.75 (0.89, 3.45)

1.99 (0.96, 4.09)

1.49 (0.70, 3.16)

Polyarticular (>4 joints)

3.67 (1.72, 7.82)

4.88 (2.17, 10.97)

3.82 (1.63, 8.95)

Number of attacks last year

1.10 (1.05, 1.17)

1.13 (1.06, 1.20)

1.11 (1.04, 1.18)

Attacks last month

1.89 (1.17, 3.04)

2.33 (1.40, 3.89)

2.20 (1.27, 3.81)

Presence of tophi

2.14 (1.28, 3.59)

2.06 (1.19, 3.56)

1.92 (1.07, 3.43)

Number of swollen joints

1.25 (1.16, 1.35)

1.25 (1.15, 1.35)

1.23 (1.13, 1.33)

Number of tender joints

1.14 (1.10, 1.19)

1.13 (1.08, 1.18)

1.10 (1.06, 1.15)

Serum uric acid

<5 mg/dl

Reference

5 to 6 mg/dl

1.18 (0.57, 2.42)

1.25 (0.58, 2.69)

1.24 (0.56, 2.74)

6 to 7 mg/dl

0.94 (0.42, 2.10)

1.20 (0.51, 2.79)

0.83 (0.34, 2.06)

>7 mg/dl

1.72 (0.89, 3.32)

2.49 (1.22, 5.06)

1.81 (0.87, 3.74)

Urate-lowering treatment

1.02 (0.57, 1.81)

1.11 (0.59, 2.09)

1.06 (0.55, 2.03)

Current NSAIDs or colchicine

3.17 (1.89, 5.33)

3.24 (1.87, 5.61)

2.57 (1.40, 4.72)

Previous corticosteroids

1.87 (1.15, 3.05)

1.76 (1.04, 2.97)

1.64 (0.93, 2.89)


NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. aAssessed by the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ-DI). bAdjusted for age and gender. cAdjusted for age, gender, comorbidities, body mass index, smoking, high alcohol consumption, education and employment (on 10 imputed datasets).

Scirè et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R101   doi:10.1186/ar4281

Open Data