Table 1

Baseline characteristics in African black subjects with and without rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis


Characteristic

Present (n = 115)

Absent (n = 159)

P-valuea


Demographics

Age, years

55.7 (10.3)

56.5 (10.9)

0.5

Female (%)

89.6

86.2

0.45

Lifestyle factors

Alcohol use (%)

0

17.6

-

Units per week, numberb

0

0.27 (1.08)

-

Exercise (%)

41.7

42.8

1.0

Hours per week, numberb

0.1 (1.0)

1.7 (2.4)

0.0004

Anthropometric measures

Body mass index

29.2 (6.6)

33.7 (8.0)

<0.0001

<20 kg/m2 (%)

5.4

2.5

0.2

20 to 24.9 kg/m2 (%)

25.2

8.8

0.0004

25 to 29.9 kg/m2 (%)

25.2

23.3

0.8

>29.9 kg/m2 (%)

44.1

64.8

0.0001

Waist circumference, cm

93.1 (13.3)

97.5 (15.0)

0.01

Waist/height

0.58 (0.09)

0.62 (0.1)

0.0003

Hip circumference, cm

110 (18)

116 (15)

0.002

Waist/hipb

0.85 (1.14)

0.84 (1.13)

0.4

Cardiovascular drugs

Antihypertensive agents

Use (%)

53.9

40.2

0.02

Number

1.0 (1.1)

0.5 (0.7)

<0.0001

>1 agent (%)

36.5

8.8

<0.0001

Diuretic (%)

38.3

39.0

1.0

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (%)

40.8

6.9

<0.0001

Calcium channel blocker (%)

16.5

5.0

0.002

Beta blocker (%)

3.5

0

-

Angiotensin receptor blocker (%)

0.9

0

-

Glucose lowering agents

Oral glucose lowering agent (%)

13.9

10.1

0.3

Insulin (%)

0.9

2.5

0.3

Statin (%)

19.1

0

-

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent (%)

6.1

4.4

0.6

Rheumatoid arthritis characteristics

Disease duration, years

12.5 (8.8)

Clinical Disease Activity Indexb [58]

8.3 (2.6)

<2.8 or remission (%)

17.4

2.7 to 10 or mild disease activity (%)

29.6

11 to 22 or moderate disease activity (%)

40.0

>22 or high disease activity (%)

13.0

Deformed joints, numberb

6.2 (2.7)

Rheumatoid factor positive (%)

76.5

Disease modifying agents

Methotrexate (%)

92.2

Chloroquine (%)

80.9

Sulphasalazine (%)

25.2

Leflunomide (%)

20.0

Azathioprine (%)

14.8

Tetracyclin (%)

10.4

Cyclophosphamide (%)

6.1

Penicillamine (%)

2.6


Results are expressed as mean (SD) or proportions/percentages. aExcept for associations between rheumatoid arthritis status and demographic characteristics, adjusted for age and gender; bnon-normally distributed variables for which geometric mean (SD) is given.

Dessein et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R96   doi:10.1186/ar4276

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