Markers of endothelial activation in ACA+ and ACA-patients and in controls. Outlier box plots of (A) vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), (B) intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), (C) von Willebrand factor (vWf) and (D) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in systemic sclerosis patients with (+) or without (-) anticentromere antibodies (ACA) and in comparable controls. The median, interquartile range (IQR) and the lowest value still within 1.5 IQR of the lower quartile, and the highest value still within 1.5 IQR of the upper quartile are represented by the box and whiskers. The dots represent the individual samples. P values between ACA+ versus ACA- are adjusted for age, gender and disease duration and P values for ACA+ versus controls are adjusted for age and gender.
Nordin et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R87 doi:10.1186/ar4267