Effects of double-antiangiogenic protein on the production of matrix metalloprotease 3, interleukin 1β and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand in collagen-induced arthritis. (A) through (C) Comparative concentrations of serum matrix metalloprotease 3 (MMP-3) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and the IL-1β of tissue extracts from the hind paws of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice injected with Fc, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-Trap, tyrosine kinase with immunoglobulin and epidermal growth factor homology domain 2 (Tie2)-Fc or double-antiangiogenic protein (DAAP). (D) Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA expression in the synovium of knee joints. A representative gel image is shown (upper) together with a graph comparing the semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) data (lower). Values are presented as the mean relative density of the RANKL PCR product bands normalized to the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) PCR product bands. In all experiments, n = 10 for each group. Values are mean ± SE. *P <0.05, **P <0.01 vs. Fc.
Hah et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R85 doi:10.1186/ar4265