Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Arthritis Research & Therapy and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Peripheral regulatory cells immunophenotyping in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome: a cross-sectional study

Janette Furuzawa-Carballeda, Gabriela Hernández-Molina, Guadalupe Lima, Yahaira Rivera-Vicencio, Karen Férez-Blando and Luis Llorente*

Author Affiliations

Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Col. Sección XVI, CP 14000, Mexico City, Mexico

For all author emails, please log on.

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:R68  doi:10.1186/ar4245

Published: 21 June 2013

Abstract

Introduction

IL-10--producing B cells, Foxp3-expressing T cells (Tregs) and the IDO-expressing dendritic cells (pDC) are able to modulate inflammatory processes, to induce immunological tolerance and, in turn, to inhibit the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease.

The aim of the study was to characterize and to enumerate peripheral IL-10--producing B cells, Tregs and pDCregs in primary Sjögren's Syndrome (pSS) patients in regard of their clinical and serologic activity.

Methods

Fifty pSS patients and 25 healthy individuals were included in the study. CD19+--expressing peripheral B lymphocytes were purified by positive selection. CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/IL-10--producing B cells, CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ and CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs, as well as CCR6+/CD123+/IDO+ DCs, were quantitated by flow cytometry.

Results

Immature/transitional circulating IgA+ IL-10--producing B cells had higher levels in pSS patients versus control group, whereas CD19+/CD38hi/IgG+/IL-10+ cells had lower percentage versus control. Indeed CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD5+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD20+/IL-10+, CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+, and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CXCR7+/IL-10+ cells had higher frequency in clinical inactive pSS patients when compared with control group. Remarkably, only percentages of CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD10+/IL-10+ and CD19+/CD24hi/CD38hi/CD27-/IL-10+ subsets were increased in pSS serologic inactive versus control group (P < 0.05). The percentage of IDO-expressing pDC cells was higher in pSS patients regardless of their clinical or serologic activity. There were no statistically significant differences in the percentage of CD4+/CD25hi/Foxp3+ Tregs between patient groups versus controls. Nonetheless, a decrease in the frequency of CD8+/CD28-/Foxp3+ Tregs was found in inactive pSS patients versus controls (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

The findings of this exploratory study show that clinical inactive pSS patients have an increased frequency of IL-10--producing B cells and IDO-expressing pDC cells.