Table 1

Alterations in gut microbiota associated with immune-mediated diseases

Associated microbes

Microbiota changes

References


IBD - Crohn's disease

Reduction in microbial diversity when compared with controls

[95]

Gut microbiome

Bacteroides ovatus

Bacteroides vulgatus

Bacteroides uniformis

IBD

Associated with overall community shift and dysbiosis

[96]

Gut microbiome

Bacteroidetes ↓

Lachnospiraceae ↓

Actinobacteria ↑

Proteobacteria ↑

Clostridium ↓

Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio ↓

Bifi dobacteria ↓

Celiac disease

Overall higher diversity of microbes in patients with celiac disease compared with controls

[97]

Gut microbiome

Bacteroides vulgatus

Escherichia coli

Clostridium coccoides

Psoriasis

Overrepresentation of Firmicutes and an underrepresentation of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria when compared with controls

[98,99]

Skin microbiome

Firmicutes ↑

Bacteroidetes ↑

Actinobacteria ↓

Proteobacteria ↓

Rheumatoid arthritis

Dysbiosis and increased diversity

[100,101]

Oral microbiome

Porphyromonas gingivalis


IBD, inflammatory bowel disease.

Costello et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:214   doi:10.1186/ar4228