Table 3

Demographics of study participants

cSLE without NCD (n = 14)

cSLE with NCD (n = 7)

P-value1


Age, years

14.7 ± 2.1

15.1 ± 1.9

NS

Female

Number, %

11 (78.6%)

6 (85.7%)

NS

Race/ethnicity

White/black/hispanic/other

6/4/2/2

1/6/0/0

NS

Highest maternal educational level

Postgraduate degree/Bachelor's degree/partial college or associate degree/High School degree/unknown

2/4/4/4/0

0/0/3/3/1

NS

WASI full scale IQ score

104.4 ± 10.5

89.0 ± 7.4

0.005

Annual family income (in "tabcaption",000)

84.4 ± 48.9

34.4 ± 17.3

0.003

Disease duration, years

2.5 ± 2.2

1.6 ± 1.6

NS

Medications

Prednisone (mg/kg/day)

11.7 ± 7.4

16.9 ± 11.8

NS

Treatment with immunosuppressant2

5 (35.7%)

5 (71.4%)

NS

Disease activity and damage

SLEDAI score

4.1 ± 3.0

7.1 ± 6.2

NS

SDI score

0.4 ± 0.8

0.7 ± 1.1

NS

Imaging sites

Site 1/site 2

10/4

6/1

NS

Neurocognitive dysfunction

Average z-scores

Working memory

-0.15 ± 0.52

-1.03 ± 0.59

0.0038

Psychomotor speed

0.23 ± 0.69

-1.22 ± 0.38

0.0001

Attention

0.13 ± 0.57

-0.39 ± 1.08

NS

Visuoconstructional ability

0.30 ± 0.46

-1.22 ± 0.91

< 0.0001


Values are means and SD unless indicated otherwise. 1P-values are based on t-tests or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate. 2Number of patients (without/with) neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD) treated with: mycophenolate mofetil (4/2); azathioprine (2/1); methotrexate (1/0); mycophenolate mofetil plus cyclophosphamide (0/1); cyclophosphamide (0/1). cSLE, childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus; WASI, Wechsler abbreviated scales of intelligence; NS, not significant; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (2-k version; range 0 to 105; 0 = inactive disease); SDI: Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (range 0 to 46; 0 = no damage).

DiFrancesco et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R40   doi:10.1186/ar4197

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