Serum cytokines levels and the fold-increases of supernatant cytokines levels after stimulation with the Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 ligand. The comparison in serum levels of cytokines, including IL-1β (A), IL-6 (B), IL-18 (C), TNF-α (D), and IFN-α (E) among patients with adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD), patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and healthy controls (HCs). To explore the functional role of TLR7, we examined the fold-increases of supernatant cytokines levels, including IL-1β (F), IL-6 (G), IL-18 (H), TNF-α (I), and IFN-α (J) after stimulation with the TLR7 ligand (imiquimod 5 μg/mL) in AOSD patients, SLE patients, and HCs. The horizontal line indicates the median value for each group. The P-value was determined by the Mann-Whitney U-test.
Chen et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R39 doi:10.1186/ar4193