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Highly Accessed Review

microRNA-mediated regulation of innate immune response in rheumatic diseases

Xiaobing Luo12, Koustubh Ranade2, Ronel Talker3, Bahija Jallal2, Nan Shen1* and Yihong Yao2*

Author Affiliations

1 Joint Molecular Rheumatology Laboratory of Institute of Health Sciences and Shanghai Renji Hospital, Shanghai JiaoTong University School of Medicine and Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 145 Shan Dong Middle Road, Shanghai 200001, China

2 MedImmune, One MedImmune Way, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA

3 School of Pre-Clinical Medicine, Downing College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1DQ, UK

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:210  doi:10.1186/ar4194

Published: 9 April 2013

Abstract

miRNAs have been shown to play essential regulatory roles in the innate immune system. They function at multiple levels to shape the innate immune response and maintain homeostasis by direct suppression of the expression of their target proteins, preferentially crucial signaling components and transcription factors. Studies in humans and in disease models have revealed that dysregulation of several miRNAs such as miR-146a and miR-155 in rheumatic diseases leads to aberrant production of and/or signaling by inflammatory cytokines and, thus, critically contributes to disease pathogenesis. In addition, the recent description of the role of certain extracellular miRNAs as innate immune agonist to induce inflammatory response would have direct relevance to rheumatic diseases.