Indicators of disease and cumulative disease activity in pediatric- and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE and aSLE). (A) Circulating plasma osteopontin (cOPN) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (cNGAL) levels in pSLE and aSLE are increased compared with unrelated age-matched healthy young controls (H.C.) and unrelated healthy adults (H.A.), respectively. pSLE patients with active disease are represented by open squares. (B) Increased 6-month adjusted-mean SLE disease activity index (AMS) is seen in pSLE and aSLE patients who have an increase in Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology (SLICC/ACR) damage index scores (SDI) at the end of the 12-month follow up period.
Rullo et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R18 doi:10.1186/ar4150