Estradiol induces fibronectin production ex vivo in human skin. Estrogen and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) agonist induce fibronectin expression ex vivo. Human skin samples were plated on six-well plates and treated with ethanol (EtOH), 17β-estradiol (E2), estradiol with ICI 182,780 (E2+ICI), propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and genistein and incubated for 7 days. Immunohistochemistry was performed using anti-fibronectin antibody and visualized with aminoethyl carbazole (red).
Aida-Yasuoka et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R10 doi:10.1186/ar4140