Figure 3.

Estradiol promotes the development of fibrosis ex vivo in human skin. (A) Estrogen and estrogen receptor (ERα) agonist induce skin thickening ex vivo. Human skin samples were plated on six-well plates and treated with ethanol (EtOH), 17β-estradiol (E2), estradiol with ICI 182,780 (E2+ICI), propyl-pyrazole-triol (PPT), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), and genistein for 7 days. (A) Images of H & E-stained sections taken at 40× magnification. Skin thickness was measured and the ratio of the thickness compared with vehicle control (EtOH or DMSO) was calculated as an arbitrary unit. Data shown are from three independent experiments. *P >0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test. (B) Estrogen and ERα agonist also induce collagen bundle thickening in ex vivo. Human skin samples were treated with EtOH, E2, E2+ICI, PPT, DMSO, or genistein for 7 days. Images of H & E-stained sections are shown. Images taken at 800× magnification. Thickness of collagen bundles was measured and the ratio compared with vehicle control (EtOH or DMSO) was calculated as an arbitrary unit. Data shown are from three independent experiments. *P >0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test.

Aida-Yasuoka et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R10   doi:10.1186/ar4140
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