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Open Access Research article

Estradiol promotes the development of a fibrotic phenotype and is increased in the serum of patients with systemic sclerosis

Keiko Aida-Yasuoka1, Christine Peoples2, Hidekata Yasuoka1, Pamela Hershberger3, Katelynn Thiel1, Jane A Cauley4, Thomas A Medsger2 and Carol A Feghali-Bostwick1*

Author Affiliations

1 Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 3459 Fifth Avenue, 628 NW MUH, Pittsburgh, PA 14213, USA

2 Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, BST South 7th floor, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

3 Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm & Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA

4 Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, A510 Crabtree Hall, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA

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Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013, 15:R10  doi:10.1186/ar4140

Published: 10 January 2013

Abstract

Introduction

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is more prevalent in women. Our goal is to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on the development of fibrosis and to compare circulating levels of estrogens in SSc patients and healthy controls.

Methods

Using primary human dermal fibroblasts, we evaluated the effect of E2 on fibronectin (FN) expression with and without the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist ICI 182,780, inhibitors of signaling, propyl-pyrazole-triol, an ERα specific ligand, and genistein, an ERβ selective ligand, to identify the signaling pathways mediating E2's effect. We confirmed the fibrotic effect of E2 in human skin using an ex vivo organ culture model. Lastly, we measured levels of E2 and estrone in serum samples from SSc patients with diffuse cutaneous involvement and healthy controls using mass spectrometry.

Results

E2 increased expression of FN in dermal fibroblasts. ICI 182,780, inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate inhibitor, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor blocked the effects of E2 on FN. Propyl-pyrazole-triol, but not genistein, significantly increased FN expression. Ex vivo, E2 induced fibrosis of human skin. The effects of E2 were abrogated by ICI 182,780. Circulating levels of E2 and estrone were significantly increased in sera of patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc.

Conclusion

Our findings implicate estrogens in the fibrotic process and may explain the preponderance of SSc in women. ICI 182,780 or other ER signaling antagonists may be effective agents for the treatment of fibrosis.