Table 1

Peak tibial forces during activities of daily living

Activity

Peak tibial forces (xBW)

Notes


Walking [4,7,70,71,76]

2.5-2.8

Laboratory floor

Stair ascent [4,76]

2.9-3.2

N = 9

Stair descent [4,76]

3.2-3.5

N = 9

Treadmill walking [71]

2.1 ± 0.2

1 to 3 miles per hour (N = 4)

Power walking [71]

2.8 ± 0.4

4 miles per hour on treadmill (N = 4)

Jogging [68]

3.1-3.6

Tumor replacement prosthesis (N = 1)

Jogging [71]

4.2 ± 0.2

5 miles per hour on treadmill (N = 4)

Stationary bicycling [71]

1.0-1.5

Level 1-5; 60-90 rpm (N = 4)

Golf (lead knee) [71]

4.4 ± 0.1

Left knee in a right handed golfer (N = 4)

Golf (trailing knee) [71]

3.0 ± 0.2

N = 4

Tennis serve [71]

4.2 ± 0.1

N = 4

Tennis forehand [71]

4.3 ± 0.4

N = 4

Tennis backhand [71]

3.5 ± 0.6

N = 4

StairMaster Level 1 [71]

2.4 ± 0.1

N = 4

StairMaster Level 3 [71]

3.3 ± 0.3

N = 4

Elliptical level 1 [71]

2.3 ± 0.2

N = 4

Elliptical level 11 [71]

2.2 ± 0.3

N = 4

Leg press [71]

2.8 ± 0.1

Foot reaction force = 1 xBW (N = 4)

Knee extension [71]

1.5 ± 0.0

Resistance = 0.2 xBW (N = 4)

Rowing machine [71]

0.9 ± 0.1

N = 4


xBW, times body weight. Adapted from [81].

D'Lima et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:203   doi:10.1186/ar4138