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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

IL-32 and IL-17 interact and have the potential to aggravate osteoclastogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis

Young-Mee Moon1, Bo-Young Yoon2, Yang-Mi Her1, Hye-Joa Oh1, Jae-Seon Lee1, Kyoung-Woon Kim3, Seon-Yeong Lee1, Yun-Ju Woo1, Kyung-Su Park1, Sung-Hwan Park1, Ho-Youn Kim1 and Mi-La Cho1*

Author affiliations

1 The Rheumatism Research Center, Catholic Research Institute of Medical Science, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, South Korea

2 Department of Internal Medicine Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Juhwa-ro 170, Ilsanseo-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 411-706, South Korea

3 Conversant Research Consortium in Immunologic disease, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-701, South Korea

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Citation and License

Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R246  doi:10.1186/ar4089

Published: 13 November 2012

Abstract

Introduction

Interleukin (IL)-32 and IL-17 play critical roles in pro-inflammatory responses and are highly expressed in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the relations between these two cytokines (IL-17 and IL-32) for their ability to induce each other and to stimulate osteoclasts in RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and T cells.

Methods

FLSs were isolated through surgical synovectomy obtained from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Real-time PCR were performed to evaluate the expression of IL-32, IL-17 and osteoclast-related genes. Immunohistochemical staining and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining were performed to determine the distribution of inflammatory cytokines and the presence of osteoclastogenesis.

Results

IL-17 induced the expression of IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients, as assessed by microarray. IL-32 production was increased by IL-17. IL-32 in the FLSs from RA patients induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. IL-32 and IL-17 were colocalized near TRAP-positive areas in joint specimens. IL-17 and IL-32 synergistically induced the differentiation of osteoclasts, as demonstrated by the expression of osteoclast-related genes. IL-32 and IL-17 also could induce resorption by osteoclasts in a RANKL-dependent manner.

Conclusions

IL-17 affected the expression of IL-32 in FLSs of RA patients and IL-32 induced the production of IL-17 in CD4+ T cells. Both IL-17 and IL-32 cytokines can reciprocally influence each other's production and amplify the function of osteoclastogenesis in the in RA synovium. Separately, IL-17 and IL-32 each stimulated osteoclastogenesis without RANKL. Together, the two cytokines synergistically amplified the differentiation of osteoclasts, independent of RANKL stimulation.