Effects of glucocorticoids/proinflammatory cytokines on DKK1 expression in primary synovial fibroblasts (FLS) or dermal fibroblasts (DF). Results shown are the combined duplicates of four separate FLS or DF cell-lines. (A) Effect of dexamethasone (100 nM), TNFα (10 ng/ml), or (B) IL-1β (10 ng/ml) on DKK1 mRNA expression in FLS. (C) Effect of dexamethasone (100 nM), TNFα (10 ng/ml) and IL-1β (10 ng/ml) on secretion of DKK1 protein in FLS. Dexamethasone but not TNFα or IL-1β, induces significant secretion of DKK1 protein from FLS. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01.
Hardy et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R226 doi:10.1186/ar4065