Sulforaphane (SFN) downregulates neither matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) secretion nor catalytic activity. Synoviocytes (HSE) were pre-treated 30 min with various concentrations of SFN and then stimulated with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 6 h. Luminex multiplex assay for MMP-3 (A) and MMP-9 secretion level (B) was carried out as described above. The catalytic activity of MMP-9 was visualised by zymography (C) and quantified by densitometric analysis with ImageJ (D). All experiments were performed with n = 3. Graphs represent mean + SEM. Statistical significance is marked as *P < 0.05. (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test, GraphPad Prism 5 software; GraphPad Software. La Jolla, CA, USA.).
Fragoulis et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R220 doi:10.1186/ar4059