Sulforaphane (SFN) inhibits TNF-α-induced production of IL-1β and IL-6. Synoviocytes (K4IM) were pre-treated (30 min) with increasing concentrations of SFN and stimulated with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 6 h. ELISA for IL-1β (A) and IL-6 (B) was measured as described in methods. Experiments were performed with n = 8. Graphs represent mean + SEM. Statistical significances are marked as *P < 0.05 vs. control, #P < 0.05 vs. TNF-α treated only. (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test, GraphPad Prism 5 software; GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA.).
Fragoulis et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R220 doi:10.1186/ar4059