Sulforaphane (SFN) inhibits TNF-α-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1. Synoviocytes (K4IM) were pre-treated (30 min) with increasing concentrations of SFN or solvent and stimulated with 10 ng/mL TNF-α for 6 h. Cells were transfected with p(NF-κB)3 (A) or p(AP-1)5 (B) and dual luciferase assay was measured as described in Wruck et al. 2007. Treatment groups were normalised to the control group (= 1). All experiments were performed with n = 8. Data represent mean + SEM. Statistical significance is marked as ***P < 0.001. (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test, GraphPad Prism 5 software; GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA.).
Fragoulis et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R220 doi:10.1186/ar4059