Sleep disturbances are associated with increased pain, disease activity, depression, and anxiety in ankylosing spondylitis: a case-control study
- Equal contributors
1 Department of Rheumatology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853, China
2 Department of Child and Adolescent Health, College of Public Health, Zhengzhou University, 100 Kexue Road, Zhengzhou 450001, China
3 Department of Rheumatology, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Military Command, 156 Xi'erhuan North Road, Fuzhou 350025, China
Citation and License
Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012, 14:R215 doi:10.1186/ar4054Published: 11 October 2012
Literature data suggest that sleep disturbances are prevalent among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and have a close correlation with pain. Other studies indicate that sleep disturbances are constantly accompanied by depression and anxiety in AS, but their interrelations are poorly understood. This study was designed to evaluate sleep disturbances and their association with demographic variables, pain, disease-specific variables, functional status, covering depression and anxiety in AS patients.
The 314 patients with AS and age- and sex-matched controls took part in the study, completed a battery of questionnaires, and participated in long-term follow-up. Blood samples were taken to measure C-reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The association among sleep, pain, disease activity, functional status, depression, and anxiety were assessed by using Pearson/Spearman correlations and multiple regression analysis.
The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score of the Chinese version was significantly higher in the AS group than in the control group (P = 0.020). Of the 314 patients with AS, 184 (58.6%) had a high risk for sleep disturbances. The PSQI score was associated with age, years of education, ESR, CRP, overall assessment of health, pain, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), depression, and anxiety (all P < 0.001), but were not associated with disease duration, fingertip-to-floor distance, and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI) (P > 0.05). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, the medical and psychological variables contributed significantly to the variance in sleep-disturbances scores, adding an additional 23.9% to the overall R2 beyond that accounted for by demographic variables (R-square, 8.5%), resulting in a final R2of 42.6%. Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that anxiety was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting sleep disturbances (standardized coefficients, 0.287).
The prevalence of sleep disturbances in AS patients is higher than it is generally thought to be. Depression, anxiety, nocturnal pain, and total back pain are the major contributors of sleep disturbances in AS.