Table 5

Clinical outcomes by history of use of oral contraceptives

Never used (n = 67)a

1-5 years of use (n = 17)a

> 5 years of use (n = 43)a


Mean age at diagnosis; years (SD)

66.2 (7.82)

58.8 (8.19)

60.1 (7.17)


Mean follow-up time; years (SD)

10.4 (3.3)

9.9 (3.1)

10.0 (3.8)


> 3 DMARDs used (%)

11/67 (16.4)

4/17 (23.5)

14/42 (33.3)


DMARDs in combination (%)

26/67 (38.8)

8/17 (47.1)

20/42 (47.6)


Biological treatment ever (%)

14/67 (20.9)

4/17 (23.5)

19/42 (45.2)


Documented radiographic erosions (ever) (%)

37/62 (59.7)

10/17 (58.8)

20/40 (50.0)


RF positive (%)

46/66 (69.7)

10/16 (62.5)

34/43 (79.1)


Mean HAQ at diagnosis (CI)b

0.75 (0.53-0.97) (n = 34)

0.93 (0.42-1.43) (n = 6)

1.06 (0.81-1.30) (n = 27)


Mean HAQ 1 year after diagnosis (CI)b

0.83 (0.61-1.05) (n = 39)

0.64 (0.20-1.09) (n = 9)

0.81 (0.56-1.06) (n = 29)


Mean HAQ 5 years after diagnosis (CI)b

0.93 (0.75-1.11) (n = 47)

0.80 (0.46-1.15) (n = 13)

0.86 (0.62-1.10) (n = 26)


Mean HAQ 10 years after diagnosis (CI)b

0.79 (0.59-1.00) (n = 33)

1.20 (0.77-1.63) (n = 7)

1.00 (0.75-1.26) (n = 21)


Cluster distribution (P = 0.56)

Severe RA (%)

12/47 (25.5)

3/12 (25.0)

11/25 (44.0)

Mild/moderate seropos RA (%)

21/47 (44.7)

5/12 (41.7)

9/25 (36.0)

Mild/moderate seroneg RA (%)

14/47 (29.8)

4/12 (33.3)

5/25 (20.0)


CI, confidence interval; HAQ, Health Assessment Questionnaire; RF, rheumatoid factor; SD, standard deviation. aIn case of missing data, numbers (n) indicated for each variable. bAdjusted for age at diagnosis.

Pikwer et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R190   doi:10.1186/ar4021

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