Expression of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in renal tissue of active lupus nephritis (LN) patients and controls. Representative immunohistochemical staining of HMGB1 in a renal biopsy from an active LN patient (E,F) and control renal tissue (C,D). Isotype staining in control tissue (A,B). Renal tissue of the active LN patient shows a higher percentage of HMGB1-negative nuclei in tubular cells (E) and strong cytoplasmic and extracellular staining for HMGB1 in tubuli and glomeruli (F). Biopsy taken from normal renal tissue shows expression of HMGB1 mainly inside nuclei (C,D).
Abdulahad et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R184 doi:10.1186/ar4015