Transgene expression of mesenchymal stem cell aggregates following adenoviral Indian hedgehog gene transfer. Primary mesenchymal stem cells were modified with Ad.GFP (controls), Ad.IHH alone (IHH), or in combination with Ad.TGF-β1 (IHH + TGF-β1) or Ad.BMP-2 (IHH + BMP-2), seeded into pellets and analysed during a 21-day time course. Values represent levels of (a) IHH, (b) TGF-β1, or (c) BMP-2 transgene product in the conditioned media by the respective groups over 24 hours at the time points indicated. Mean ± standard deviation from three aggregates per condition and marrow preparation from three marrow preparations from different patients is shown. *Significant differences (P < 0.05) compared with controls. Ad., adenoviral vector; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; IHH, Indian hedgehog; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta.
Steinert et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R168 doi:10.1186/ar3921