Elevated urine CXCL16, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 and correlation to renal pathology activity and chronicity indices. Creatinine (Cr)-normalized urine levels of CXC ligand 16 (CXCL16), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 24), correlated according to the activity index (left) and chronicity index (right) that was scored in a concurrent renal biopsy specimen obtained at the time of urine procurement. NS, not significant; R, correlation coefficient.
Singh et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R164 doi:10.1186/ar3912