Elevated levels of urine CXCL16, MCP-1 and VCAM-1 in patients with class IV lupus nephritis. Creatinine (Cr)-normalized urine levels of CXC ligand 16 (CXCL16), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 24), segregated according to the glomerulonephritis (GN) class that was present in a concurrent renal biopsy specimen obtained at the time of urine procurement. The indicated fold-change and P value refer to class IV GN compared with all other GN classes.
Singh et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R164 doi:10.1186/ar3912